Pastoralist livelihoods depend on their indigenous ecological knowledge and the wellbeing of their livestock. They utilize the rich indigenous knowledge about their environment to monitor and predict climate and seasonal cycles through observation of behavioral characteristics of biological components, cosmology and other traditional, socio-cultural methods.Pastoralists use this knowledge to model their livelihoods and manage their cultural calendar events. However, unpredictable weather variations have become so phenomenal and a big challenge in providing accurate weather prediction by the traditional indigenous institutions.
This phenomenon has increased pastoralists vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change and global warming. The loss of livestock which is the main livelihoods pillar is increasing poverty rates, stress and depression particularly to the boys and men. This is directly driving a change in gender roles where women who are already burdened with household chores, fetching water and firewood now become the breadwinners for the households.